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Recent Articles

Exploring the Efficiency and Feasibility of Tin/Al2O3 /p-Si MIS Devices: A Critical Review and Analysis

Test results have indicated the types of behaviors that can be expected with band engineering. The high-k dielectric used has introduced a mid-gap state in the silicon band gap. It is the Al2O3 layer that is causing this. By taking a polycrystalline high-k dielectric, the different grain boundaries that occur in the structure introduce different energies in the insulator layer. The electrons in the silicon that are being pinned are being trapped by these high and low energy states between the oxygen and silicon bonds. This is known as a quasi-static trapping. What this does is build up a positive oxide charge over time. This has an effect on the overall conductance of the p-type silicon. In terms of positive ion charge that is felt by the silicon, the charge density is still the same with electrons being spatially redistributed around the bonding sites. This is a key advantage with high-k dielectrics and one of the goals of the current research into MIS devices. The test data is showing a current increase from the field emission. When tested with constant voltage and varying temperature, the emission is a result of a thermally activated process by the tunneling increases. Energy is transferable to electrons in the silicon with carriers increased and at higher temperatures the increase in carriers is exponential. This can cause negative bias instability in the device and is not a desirable outcome for p-type or CMOS with progression into more advanced technology in the quest for higher device integration. This issue can potentially be resolved by band engineering the silicon. This is a large and complex topic and according to results and the current understanding of high-k dielectrics, no further progress should be made until it is fully understood how an insulator with a mid-gap state can affect the silicon. This and the effects of positive charge build up are the research topics which will lead on from the current work into MIS devices with high-k dielectric

Unlocking Neurodegeneration: Scaffold-Derived Blockers of MAO-B and AChE Inspired by Bryophyllum pinnatum: A Structural Exploration

This study evaluates the potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum ligands as treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) by targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), enzymes linked to these neurodegenerative disorders. Utilizing Schrödinger Suite and Maestro 12.8 for computer-aided drug design, ligands from B. pinnatum and standard drugs were docked into the active sites of AChE and MAO-B. Further analysis included ADMET screening and MM/GBSA calculations, with pharmacophore modeling to align compounds with reference ligands. The study identified 4 and 6 promising compounds as MAO-B and AChE inhibitors, respectively. Pinoresinol was identified as the most promising candidate, exhibiting optimal binding, favorable blood-brain barrier permeability, and pharmacophoric features similar to those of the standard drug. These findings suggest the neuroprotective capabilities of B. pinnatum ligands, recommending further in vivo and in vitro testing to confirm their therapeutic efficacy

Dosing Time-Dependency of the Arthritis-Inhibiting Effect of Tofacitinib in Mice

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has a 24-hour rhythm with a characteristic symptom of morning stiness, which causes pain in the joints from late night to early morning. We previously revealed that higher therapeutic eects were obtained in RA patients and RA animal models when the dosing time of anti-rheumatic drugs was chosen according to the 24-hour rhythms of cytokine and in- ammatory reaction. In this study, we evaluated whether dosing with the Janus-associated kinases inhibitor Tofacitinib while accounting for biological rhythms results in higher therapeutic ecacy