Levofloxacin, a broad-spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is rarely reported to cause life-threatening adverse effects, such as severe hypoglycemia resulting in coma. We report a rare case of hypoglycemia in an elderly non- diabetic patient induced by levofloxacin. A 61-year-old male patient was admitted with severe hypoglycemia. His past medical history revealed treatment with levofloxacin for pneumonia.
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Insomnia is a frequent condition that can be acute, intermittent, or chronic. It is an unpleasant feeling that makes it difficult to fall asleep. The main aim of the review is to determine the adverse effects of Insomnia drugs and the need to opt for Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach as an adjuvant in treating Insomnia condition with lesser- known side effects. The Methodology involved a detailed literature survey which was performed through an online database, such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane, and PubMed. The study included original research and book chapters conducted on relation with Insomnia in particular with various therapies used currently and aimed to find possible alternative source which will be effective in treatment as well as with less burden of side effects
Proper use of medicine or taking medicine in correct order is essential to cure any disease. According to the WHO, lack of adherence to treatment regimens leads to major problems among patients, mostly with chronic illnesses
Penicillin-Streptomycin Induces Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes through MAPK signal pathway
Penicillin and streptomycin are the most commonly used to prevent bacterial infection or contamination in cell culture. However, the role of Penicillin-streptomycin on inducing mouse embryonic stem cells(mESCs) to differentiate into cardiomyocytes is unclear. To illustrate the mechanism of penicillin-streptomycin on inducing mESCs differentiation into cardiomyocytes, we firstly investigated mESCs differentiation into cardiomyocytes by the traditional method. The time- space expressions of cardiac-specific genes were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting at 8 different time-points over a period of 36 days. Furthermore, action potentials were measured by patch clamp for mESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Embryonic bodies through hanging drop method, were incubated with penicillin-streptomycin (P/S) at different concentrations (1×PBS, 1×, 2×, 5×), and then, the number of cardiomyocytes and expression levels of myocardial marker proteins were detected by flow cytometry, cellular immunofluorescence, and western blotting, respectively. We found that the SSEA-1 of mESC presented green fluorescence, and H.E. staining showed karyoplasmic ratio >>1. Besides, TNNI3, TNNT2, ACTN2 and MYL-2v were clearly visible by cellular immunofluorescence. Furthermore, the ACTN2 positive cells rate of 2× and 5× groups were remarkably higher than that in Cntl (1×PBS) group and 1× group (10 Units/mL penicillin; 10 μg/mL streptomycin), as well as the expressions of GATA4, MYL-2v, TNNI3, ACTN2