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Recent Articles

Arduino Use in Education Systems to Monitor the Noise in Schools Classrooms in Qatar

Many students suffer from the sound of air conditioners and others suffer from light intensity in classroom. The air conditioners and light intensity affect the efficiency and quality of education. Urduino is used a lot in industrial areas because there is a lot of noise pollution. Additionally, it can be used in high traffic regions as well as to monitor noise in different parts of the city. It can also be used in education systems to monitor the noise in classrooms. The purpose of this study was to monitor the noise in classrooms by Arduino Nano that interfaced with a Sound Sensor. A study was conducted to determine the ambient sound and light intensity of a convenience sample at school during September, October and November 2021. Six classrooms’ samples corresponding to hourly fractions of the average sample broken down into the following periods: from 10:00 am to 2:50 pm. Sound levels were measured to assess acoustic conditions. Light levels were measured to assess light conditions. Each classroom from 1 to 6 was tested the ambient sound intensity and light using an Arduino. Noise varies with time and place. The sound level varies between 27.5 dB and 65 dB with the average sound level in the classrooms was 43.53 dB greater than recommended sound level limit of 35 dB. The light intensity varies between 62.50 lux and 208.5 lux. The average light levels around the recommended 300 lux. Everyone emphasized the quality of using the device to measure the noise level in the classroom. The use of the device leads to monitor the noise of the air conditioner or replacing it. The device has the potential to significantly change the noise pollution monitoring system at school. Researchers recommend all students and authorities the importance of the Arduino.

Mattress Coil Spring Fatigue and Support: A Potential Association with Spine Stiffness and Pain

Prolong mattress use compresses the metal coil springs which may ultimately result in a compromised sleeping surface. This coil spring metal fatigue can result in spinal pain and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of metal fatigue of used mattress coil springs from the areas bearing greatest body weight versus areas subjected to little compression to ascertain the. Six weight bearing coil springs (WBS) were extracted from the center the used (range 8-10 yr.) mattresses (N=32) and six non-weight bearing coil springs (NWBS) were extracted from the head/foot are of the same mattresses. To determine spring weakness a special frame and platform was constructed to compare unloaded spring height with compression distance height following placement of a 1,296 g ingot on the platform. Also, a pressure gauge was used to measure the amount of pressure required to compress the coil springs a distance of 2 cm. Comparison between WBS and NWBS data were statistically treated using independent t-tests and a one-way ANOVA. There were no significant group differences in weight or height in unloaded coils. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in coil spring compression distance under load (WBS = 2.78 ± 0.34 cm; NWBS = 1.52 ± 0.39 cm) and force gauge compression (WBS = 1090.51 ± 88.42 g; NWBS = 1213.12 ± 71.38 g) between groups. While manufacturers’ recommendations to replace a mattress is ranges between 8 and 10 yrs., these results indicate that coil spring weakness may occur before 8 yrs. of use. Weak springs leads to loss of weight bearing capacity of the mattress thereby resulting in sagging upon use. Such sagging which may compromise sleep posture with accompanying back pain and poor sleep quality and quantity.

Hierarchical Analysis of The Factors Associated with the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Cume Project)

The objective of this study was to assess which factors, at hierarchical levels, are associated with adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) in undergraduate and graduate students. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project), with alumni from Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the years 2016 and 2018. The outcome variable was adequate consumption of FV (≥400 g/day). The exposure variables were divided into: block 1, socioeconomic (marital status, education, professional status, individual and family income); block 2, behavioral (physical activity, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and consumption of legumes, natural juices, ultra-processed foods, soft drinks and industrialized juices, and fast foods); block 3, individual (gender, age, skin color, self-perception of health and presence of obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and depression). To verify the associations, hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used. The sample consisted of 4,124 individuals with a median age of 34 years and Interquartile Range (IQ) of 12 years, 68.1% women, with a high frequency (62.2%) of adequate consumption of FV. This adequate consumption of FV was associated with being a woman (OR=1.41; 95%CI 1.21-1.64; p<0.001), advancing in age and being physically active (OR=2.10; 95%CI 1.78-2.47; p<0.001), having regular consumption of natural fruit juice (OR=2.00; 95%CI 1.70-2.34, p<0.001), or consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=0.96; 95%CI 0.95-0.97; p<0.001). In conclusion, individual and behavioral factors are associated with adequate consumption of FV in highly educated individuals.

Pharmacodynamic Equivalence of Ovine Enoxaparin to Porcine Enoxaparin (Lovenox®) In Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, 2-Way Cross-Over, Single Dose Study

Aim: to demonstrate the PK/PD equivalence of an ovine enoxaparin to the reference product, the originator porcine enoxaparin, Lovenox® from Sanofi, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers with s.c. administration. Methods: a randomized, open-label, 2-way cross-over, single-dose study with 7 days wash-out period was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. A single s.c. injection of 6,000 IU ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma (the test drug, T) or Lovenox® from Sanofi (the reference drug, R) was given randomly to each subject in fasting condition. The PD endpoints measured were anti-FXa and anti-FIIa activities in plasma, whereas the PD parameters determined for these endpoints were AUEC0-t (area under the effect curve from time 0 to the last measured activity (t)) and Amax (maximum activity). Bioequivalence (BE) is based on anti-FXa activity, the 90% CIs for GMR T/R (geometric means ratio of Test/ Reference) of AUEC0-t and Amax must fall within the BE limits of 80.00 – 125.00%. The anti-FIIa data are in vivo supportive evidence only. Results: a total of 23 healthy volunteers completed this study. The 90% CIs for GMR T/R of AUEC0-t and Amax for anti-FXa were 107.55 – 116.33% and 110.17 – 117.68%, respectively, while those for anti-FIIa were 100.93 – 122.56% and 105.19 – 124.44%, respectively. All parameters fell within the BE criteria of 80.00 – 125.00%. One AE (adverse event) occurred in one volunteer after s.c. injection of ovine enoxaparin, i.e. bruising which disappeared after a few days. Conclusions: the ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma was bioequivalent to the reference porcine enoxaparin (Lovenox®) from Sanofi. Both enoxaparin products were shown to have high safety and tolerability after a single dose in healthy volunteers. This is the first study showing BE of a nonporcine enoxaparin to the reference porcine enoxaparin in Indonesia, a Moslem country